New Eleanor Sleath Biography

May 8, 2011 at 7:46 am (Uncategorized) (, , , , , , )

The Real Eleanor Sleath

Rebecca Czlapinski and Eric C. Wheeler

Eleanor Sleath is an eighteenth century novelist known most for her 1798 gothic romance The Orphan of the Rhine.  Until now details about the life of this author have been few and erroneous, as we will demonstrate. Our research has revealed that Sleath’s life was as tempestuous as those of her heroines. Before examining the new biographical information about Eleanor Sleath, one first must deal with the conjecture of past scholars. One of the misconceptions about Sleath’s life, that she was Catholic, was begun in 1927 in a paper presented to the English Association by Michael Sadleir, who discusses the Northanger Canon, novels mentioned in Jane Austen’s parodic Gothic novel Northanger Abbey. These novels are The Orphan of the Rhine (Sleath), The Mysteries of Udolpho (Radcliffe), The Necromancer (Kahlert), The Midnight Bell (Latham), Horrid Mysteries (Grosse), Clermont (Roche), and The Mysterious Warning (Parsons). Sadleir regretted he was unable to find even a single copy of The Orphan of the Rhine to read as part of his research. However, by the time his paper went to press, a copy of The Orphan of the Rhine had been found. Sadleir categorizes the novel with Parson’s Clermont because of its “affinity to the Radcliffian school of sensational landscape-fiction staged abroad” i. Sadleir surmises that Sleath must be a Catholic because “the monks and nuns of The Orphan of the Rhine are all wise and of a spiritual disposition” ii. The idea that one must be a Catholic to treat nuns and monks kindly seems a little silly today, but Eleanor Sleath was writing soon after a period in English history during which animosity existed between Protestants and Catholics, and she wrote in a genre that often used the perceived secrecy and medievalism of Catholic traditions to depict dark secrets and clandestine activity.

Devendra Varma perpetuates the idea of Sleath’s Catholicism in his introduction to the 1972 Folio Press edition of The Nocturnal Minstrel (1810). Varma asserts, “Mrs. Sleath’s ecclesiastical figures are all of noble and virtuous pattern, sane and wise and spiritually inclined. This indicates that Mrs. Sleath had strong leanings toward Roman Catholicism” iii. However, our research reveals that her generosity and kindness toward monks and nuns stemmed from a kind spirit rather than a religious affiliation. Eleanor Sleath was the daughter of a gentleman iv and was raised as an Anglican.

Varma is also the source of other mistaken information about Sleath. In his introduction to the 1968 Folio Press release of The Orphan of the Rhine, Professor Varma recounts his investigation through interviews with people who supposedly knew someone who knew the author and archival work that, rather than simply a nom-de-plume for an anonymous writer, Eleanor Sleath was a real person. He did discover that Sleath was a Leicestershire name; in fact, Leicestershire was the county in which Eleanor Sleath spent much of her life. Professor Varma erroneously concluded that Eleanor Sleath was Eleanor Martin who married Joseph Sleath of Leicestershire in 1784. However, recent archival evidence proves that this cannot be the correct woman or marriage because Eleanor Sleath, the novelist, was born in 1770 and died in 1847 at the age of 77. vi If Sleath was born in 1770, she could not be the woman mentioned by Professor Varma who stated, “Eleanor Sleath, at the time of her marriage in 1784, stood before the altar of the Church in Gilmorton, Leicestershire; she was a tall slender woman in her twenties.” vii In 1784, Eleanor Sleath, the author, was only fourteen.

Fifty years after Professor Varma wrote his introduction to The Orphan of the Rhine, our research reveals details concerning the life of this interesting author. Eleanor Sleath was born Eleanor Carter and baptized at Loughborough Parish Church on 15 October 1770. The youngest child of Thomas and Elizabeth Carter, Eleanor had four older siblings; John Edward (1753), Mary (1755), Judith (1757), and Ann (1766).viii As an upper-middle class family of the minor gentry, the Carter Family moved from Herefordshire to Leicester during the seventeenth century. ix

Eleanor’s father Thomas was one of five surviving brothers; his siblings were John, Laurence, Isaac, and Henry. If one were not the eldest son who inherited and managed the estate, choice of professions of landed gentry at the time included only a few options such as the clergy, law, and the military. John Carter became a cleric, while Thomas and Isaac entered the legal profession. Little is known of Thomas’s early life until his marriage to Elizabeth Cousins at Wimeswould, Leicestershire on 6 October 1752.x The demands of a country attorney forced Thomas and his new family to move multiple times before they settled in the market town of Loughborough where Eleanor was born in 1770.xi Thomas Carter died while away from home, more than likely unexpectedly because he died without a will. He was buried at Sileby on 29 October 1773.xii Elizabeth, his widow, and his brother Isaac administered the estate until John Edward reached his majority. The family had land wealth to provide a living and allow for the education of the children.

Although the details of Eleanor’s upbringing are unknown, we can assume she was educated in social and practical skills involving managing a household to the standards of a young woman of her status. In the late eighteenth century, women were either tutored at home or sent to small local schools in someone’s home. An accomplished woman of Sleath’s time would be taught “drawing, dancing, penmanship, piano playing, grammar, spelling, elementary arithmetic” and often French. xiii  It is evident that Eleanor Sleath was an educated woman. By tracing the epigraphs of her first novel, The Orphan of the Rhine (1798), one can imagine some of the authors she had on her shelf: John Milton, Oliver Goldsmith, Robert Burns, William Mason, Alexander Pope, and, of course, William Shakespeare.  She may have owned the popular collection of essays and poems called Extract: Elegant, Instructive and Entertaining (1791). Or she could have owned The Lady’s Poetical Magazine (1781) or The Tea Table Miscellany (1755), since both also contained several of the works she references.  In addition to having the resources to select an apt epigraph, Sleath demonstrates a familiarity with conventional plotting and stock characters of the gothic romance novels so popular at the time.

On 14 September 1792, Eleanor Carter married Joseph Barnabas Sleath of Calverton, Buckinghamshire. xiv Details about Joseph are limited. He was summoned as and officer cadet “for the artillery of the Bengal Establishment” in 1783 but had found a substitute to go in his place by 1784.xv Whether or not he went to India is uncertain; however, he was connected to the military and was named a surgeon of the Leicestershire militia in 1794. It is possible that Eleanor met her husband through the Leicestershire militia with which her brother John Edward was also associated.

By the time of her marriage, Eleanor was twenty-one, a spinster well past the average age of marriage; Joseph was five years her senior and a bachelor. It is interesting to note that Eleanor’s marriage, unlike those of all her siblings, took place outside of Leicestershire; she was married instead at Calverton, the home of Joseph Sleath. No member of the Carter family signed the Calverton parish register as witness to the marriage. xvi These seemingly minor details raise questions: Did her family frown on the marriage? Could she have been pregnant? Could she have been acting against the wishes of her family? The newly weds settled in the large market town of Uneaten, a distance from both of their families. Joseph established himself as a surgeon and apothecary with an early account referring to him as “Mr. Sleath Doctor.” xvii Eleanor went about setting up her home as is evidenced by the minute details provided in her surviving bills of expenditure: from buying curtains, carpets, tables, and the painting of the parlour, to the repair of her watch for two shillings. xviii Eleanor soon gave birth to a son: Joseph Barnabas Sleath. Surviving records paint a picture of domestic bliss, hopes for the future, and new beginnings; however, that happiness was not to last.

The Leicestershire militia began to recruit more troops because of the threat of a French invasion. Joseph resigned from the military in 1794; the first in a chain of events that would shatter Eleanor’s new found happiness. In September Eleanor and Joseph lost their child who was buried in Nuneaton parish churchyard on 4 September 1794xix. Four weeks later, Eleanor’s husband died at the age of twenty-eight. xx Eleanor was left with mountains of debt, mostly household expenses and unpaid business accounts. xxi No record exists of any money or property left to Eleanor by her husband, although she probably had income from previous Carter family legacies. Records do show that John Edward, Eleanor’s brother, her mother Elizabeth, and her brother-in-law J. S. Cardale administered the debts of Joseph’s estate. One by one the debts were discharged over the winter and spring of 1794 and 1795. In November, after returning to Leicester to care for her aging mother, Eleanor fell ill, no doubt from stress and grief. xxii

From this period until the publication of The Orphan of the Rhine in 1798, little is known about Sleath’s life. It is unclear whether her writing was a serious hobby, a career path, or a means of providing income to discharge her debts. Eleanor met frequently with a small group of intellectual and literary minded neighbors who often shared their work and received critiques and support. One member of the group was Susanna Watts, a famous resident of Leicester. While a descendant from Sleath’s great-grandfather’s first marriage, Susanna Watts’ family suffered economic difficulties. She was self-educated and of a genteel nature. To help get by, Watts published poetry and her own translations of French and Italian literary works xxiii, as well as the first guide for the town of Leicester: A Walk Through Leicester (1804). Susanna Watt’s determination, her love of nature, and her persistent advocacy against social injustice, particularly slavery, has earned her a place in history as a strong female leader in a time when women’s roles were restricted. In addition to Susanna Watts, the group consisted of Eleanor Sleath and Reverend John Dudley, vicar of Humberstone, as well as a few others perhaps. Sleath completed and published at least one novel after Orphan of the Rhine while meeting with this group. Who’s the Murder was published in 1802 while Eleanor was living in the small village of Scraptoft, four miles east of Leicester.

In 1801, John Edward Carter moved his family, including Eleanor and their mother, from Leicester to an estate he leased called Scraptoft Hall. Located a short distance from the busy city of Leicester, Scraptoft Hall with its gardens, grottos, and lush grounds provided a retreat for Carter. xxiv The Carters mixed with the local gentry of the area including the Watts, the Coltmans, the Simons, the Heyricks, the Frewens of Cold Overton, and the Dudleys of nearby Humberstone. The Carters, Frewens, and Dudleys often called on each other for tea in order to catch up on local business and gossip. They also stayed at each other’s homes. For example, in 1803 John Dudley notes that he stayed at Cold Overton Hall for seventeen days xxv; and Mary Frewen and Susanna Watts stayed with the Dudleys the same year. xxvi The group of friends often traveled together. The correspondences between John Dudley and John Frewen indicated that they frequented the posh resort, Bath, where they attended ball, the theater, attended social functions and other activities. xxvii In February 1804, a party including John Dudley, his wife Ann, and Mary Frewen set off for Bath where they were joined by John Frewen as well as Ann Dudley’s father and sister. xxviii Later that year, John Dudley notes in his diary the “Mrs. Sleath set off with Mrs. Dudley and myself on a journey into North Wales.” Later, they were joined by the Carters, the Miss Bagnalls and their maid, and a Miss Lutwidge. xxix Eleanor Sleath moved in a close-knit circle of families affording her social and intellectual stimulation. Thrown into each other’s company as a result of friendships and literary interests, Eleanor Sleath and John Dudley developed a platonic friendship. John Dudley tells John Frewen in a letter, “various literary occupations led me to frequent intercourse with Mrs. S and Miss Watts.” xxx Mrs. John Dudley developed a resentment of their relationship, when in 1807, at a gathering of friends and family, Eleanor’s sister-in-law, Mrs. John Carter (Elizabeth) commented sarcastically about the nature of the friendship between Eleanor and Rev. Dudley. The sarcastic remark sparked gossip inflaming a simmering jealousy in the heart of Mrs. Dudley resulting in a slanderous scandal, a strained marriage, and shattered friendships. In a letter to John Frewen, Dudley complains that the “sarcasms of Mrs. Carter, which were very unfriendly, fostered by the Watts laid . . . the foundation of jealousy in the mind” of his wife. xxxi According to John Dudley, his wife hid her jealousy until she eventually “became hostile to Mrs. S. and injured her indiscreetly and secretly in various ways,” all while maintaining a civil and friendly facade. Dudley naively chose to believe that his wife’s “discontent” would diminish when she realized that his “acquaintance with Mrs. S produced no change in [his] behaviour or affection toward her.” xxxii

Despite his continued insistence that his relationship with Mrs. Sleath was purely platonic, Ann Dudley’s jealousy grew. Dudley believed that he had done nothing wrong and felt that he had to protect Eleanor’s honor which had been tarnished by gossip and rumors, which increased his wife’s anger. Dudley enlisted the help of John Edward Carter, his brother Isaac, but to no avail. Finally, Mr. Pochin, a mutual friend, suggested that Mrs. Dudley make peace with Eleanor. She agreed to do so “but her very first step rendered the thing improbable. Her violence now was no longer controlled and the worst of language was too often used.” xxxiii John Dudley finally gave up seen Eleanor when his wife insisted that her health was failing; however, her ailment proved to be a ruse when she made a miraculous recovery.

The circle of friends became polarized with Susanna Watts and Elizabeth Simms siding with Mrs. Dudley and fueling her resentment. Eventually Mrs. Dudley’s machinations led to her undoing when she spread a rumor that Mrs. Sleath went to London with the Isaac Dudleys in order to have a child – the love child of her husband, John Dudley xxxiv Rumors began circulating around Leicester that Dudley fathered a bastard by Eleanor, and an anonymous letter was sent to Eleanor instructing her to forego the acquaintance of the Dudley family for the sake of Mrs. Dudley’s “peace.” xxxv

Frustrated and angry at the attacks upon both his and Eleanor’s character and reputation, Dudley charged Mrs. Simons with giving a “slanderous report,” and later he also filed a citation against her in ecclesiastic court for defamation. He also visited Susanna Watts, accusing her of authoring the anonymous letter and threatening her with a lawsuit. However, loss of friendship and a crumbling reputation were not his only troubles. In a letter to John Frewen, Dudley asserts that Mrs. Dudley “is now desperate and her only object is revenge which is chiefly directed against me. She rides about to defame me.” He goes on to explain that she knew he was about to sell everything and “run away with Mrs. S.” Mrs. Dudley also told “Mrs. Isaac Dudley that she was hired to murder her.” Dudley also accused his wife of feigning injuries so that she could accuse him of assault. xxxvi Dudley decided to remove his wife from Humberstone, the center of the gossip, and moved to his other vicarage in the village of Sileby, seven miles north of Leicester. The move also allowed the Dudleys to live in separate houses with Ann and the servants in the larger house and John in the smaller.

As a result of the scandal, acrimony, and separation, the Dudleys’ social circle was diminished and as a result the flow of letters stopped diminishing the source of details about the lives of the Dudleys and Eleanor Sleath. We do know, however, that these years of upheaval were a very creative period with three books published between 1809 an 1811: The Bristol Heiress (1809); The Nocturnal Minstrel (1810), and Pyrenean Banditti (1811). John Dudley too published a poem, The Metamorphosis of Sona: A Hindu Tale, in 1810. The preface to his work hints at Eleanor’s encouragement and again mentions her Indian novel which he alluded to in a his diaries six years earlier: “ The author of this work was induced to relate in verse , the following legendary tale from the Vayera Parana, at the suggestion of an ingenuous and esteemed friend; who, intending to write upon a subject connected with Hindusthan, imagined such a poem might be properly introduced in it.” xxxvii Sleath’s novel of India hinted at by Dudley, has yet to be discovered, nor has it been determined if it was written. Glenowen; Or The Fairy Palace (1815) does contain Indian material; however, it is hardly “connected with Hindusthan.” This preface also implies that Dudley and Sleath were still working together.

Eleanor faced another upheaval in 1813 when her brother John Edward Carter died without issue, and his large estate was divided among his wife and his four sisters. Eleanor was bequeathed a house on High Street Leicester, and a quarter share in a small estate called Brickman Hill in Kirby Muxloe, which she would inherit after the death of Elizabeth Carter. She received a lump sum of ₤2000 to be paid out of the Barons Park Estate inherited by her sister Ann Carr, and ₤1000 from John Edward’s personal estate. She earned interest on these bequests for two years after John Edward’s death. Eleanor, along with her brothers-in-law George Carr and Joseph Spencer Cardale, were the executors of John Edward’s estate which granted them financial reward through a division of the residue of John’s personal wealth and real estate after all bequests, debts, and funeral expenses were settled. xxxviii Six months after her brother’s death, Eleanor lost her mother.

Little is known about Eleanor whereabouts between 1814 and 1816. Records place Eleanor in Loughborough, a market town based on coal trade, and later hosiery and lace manufacturing. Eleanor remained in Loughborough for six years in a house on the Leicester Road, which she purchased for ₤500 on 19 December 1816. xxxix It is interesting to note that Loughborough was the location of the Petty sessions court where local magistrates, including John Dudley, came to try cases. Also Loughborough is only 5 miles from Sileby, where Dudley continued to live alone after Ann moved to Leicester in 1811 after a getting a deed of separation. xl Although the details of Eleanor Sleath’s life for the next six years are unknown, one can assume she lived a comfortable life as an independent widow with means of her own. Since, John Dudley was separated from his wife, he was free to see Eleanor. When they received news of Ann Dudley’s death in February of 1823, they became betrothed and married on 1 April 1823 at the Loughborough parish church. xli

Eleanor and John Dudley settled in Sileby. Eleanor would have been kept busy as a vicar’s wife. In 1847 Eleanor’s health began to decline, and she died of liver disease xlii at home at the Sileby vicarage on 5 May 1847 at the age of 77.

Like the lives of her heroines, Eleanor Sleath’s life included drama, scandal, loss; like her heroines, Eleanor Sleath faced adversity head long with a strong faith in God and the power of a loving family; like her heroines, Eleanor Sleath achieved happiness and married the man she loved after many trials.


i    Sadleir, Michael. The Northanger Novels. 1927. p. 22

ii   Ibid.

iii  Varma, Devendra. “Introduction.” The Nocturnal Minstrel. London: 1972.

iv  3D42/13/49. Undated. ROLLR.

v   Loughborough All Saints: Marriages 1815 – 1826. “John Dudley of the Parish  of Sileby & Eleanor Sleath of this Parish were married in this church by License 1 April 1823.”

vi  3D42/13/49. Undated. ROLLR. Sleath’s birth records.

Death Registered 8 May 1847: Eleanor Dudley 1847 – Quarter 2, Barrow upon Soar District Vol. 15 p. 24

vii “Introduction.” The Orphan of the Rhine. London: Folio Press, 1968.

viii Joseph Spencer Cardale. “Copies of Parish Reg[iste]rs respecting the Carter    Family”, nd. 3D42/13/49 Record office for Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland (ROLLR)

ix  Ibid.

x   3D42/13/49. Undated. ROLLR.

xi  Ibid

xii Eric C. Wheeler. The Parish Registers of St. Mary Sileby Leicestershire Vol. IV:  Baptisms and Burials 1765 – 1812. Burials 1843 – 1846. Sileby: 2003. p. 83

xiii Barbara Swords. “Woman’s Place in Jane Austen’s England.” Persuasions 10         (1988)

xiv  3D42/13/49. Undated. ROLLR.

xv  IOR/L/MIL/9/255/70v, 74 British Library 1782 – 4. Also: Hodson, Major    V.C.P. The Officers of the Bengal Army 1758 – 1834 Vol 4 Part 1 S – V. London; 1947. p. 112

xvi Calverton, Buckinghamshire. Parish Registers – Marriages 1559 – 1836.   Centre for Buckinghamshire Studies. p. 22

xvii 3D42/13/66 ROLLR

xviiiVarious accounts: 3D42/13/69, 3D42/13/74, 3D42/13/81 ROLLR

xix  A birth or baptism date is not known. His existence is known from his burial record: St Nicholas, Nuneaton. Parish Register Burials 1577 – 1812. 4 September 1794. DR 61/5 Warwickshire County Record Office

xx St Nicholas, Nuneaton. Parish Register Burials 1577 – 1812. September & October 1794. op. Cit.

xxi Various accounts: 3D42/13/65 – 71, 75 – 78, 84 ROLLR

xxii Account of Thomas Teasdale, 13 November 1794. 3D42/13/69 ROLLR

xxiii Shirley Aucott. Susanna Watts 1768 – 1842. Leicester. 2004. p. 10

xxiv Lease dated 31 May 1801 between Edward Hartopp Wigley of Little Dalby, Esq and Jo[i]hn Edward Carter of Scraptoft, Gentleman. 3D42/13/507 ROLLR

xxv Misc 338. op. Cit. p. 55 ROLLR

xxvi FRE 2314 ESRO

xxvii Letter from John Dudley to Mary Frewen with his impressions of Bath, 12 April 1801. FRE 2786 ESRO.: Also FRE 1231 ESRO. John Frewen at Bath in 1784.

xxviii Misc. 338. op cit p. 57 ROLLR

xxix Misc. 338. op cit p. 67 ROLLR

xxx  Letter from John Dudley to John Frewen dated 20 September 1808 FRE   1832 ESRO p. 1

xxxi Letter from John Dudley to John Frewen dated 20 September 1808 FRE 1832 ESRO p. 1

xxxii FRE 1832 ESRO. ibid. p. 1-2

xxxiii FRE 1832 ESRO. p. 2

xxxiv FRE 1832 ESRO. p. 2 – 3

xxxv Letter from Susanna Watts to Mary Frewen dated 8 August 1808. p 3 FRE2817 ESRO.

xxxvi FRE 1832 ESRO. p. 3

xxxvii John Dudley, The Metamorphosis of Sona. Black, Parry, and Kingsbury. London. 1810. ROLLR

xxxviii Will of John Edward carter of Scraptoft, Gentleman. Dated 21 October 1811. Codicil dated 7 June 1804. Proved at London 26 July 1813. PROB 11/1546 National Archives

xxxix Conveyance: John Heathcote of Tiverton to Eleanor Sleath of Loughborough, widow. Dated 19 December 1816. DE 2018/15 ROLLR

xl Deed of Separation mentioned in the will of Ann Dudley, dated 2 October 1821, proved 3 May 1823 PROB 11/1670 National Archives

xli Loughborough All Saints: Marriages 1815 – 1826. “John Dudley of the Parish of Sileby & Eleanor Sleath of this Parish were married in this church by License 1 April 1823.”

xlii Death Registered 8 May 1847: Eleanor Dudley 1847 – Quarter 2, Barrow upon Soar District Vol. 15 p. 24


1770              Eleanor Carter born in Loughborouh, Leicestershire

1792      Eleanor Carter marries Joseph Barnabas Sleath in Calverton,

Buckinghamshire, moves to Nuneaton, Leicestershire

1794              Joseph Banabas Sleath, son and husband, both dead , Eleanor lives with

brother John Edward Carter, Leicester

1798               The Orphan of the Rhine Minerva Press

1801              Eleanor moves with brother’s family to Scraptoft Hall, Leicestershire,

part of a literary group in area including Susanna Watts and John Dudley

1802              Who’s the Murderer? Minerva Press

1804              Travels to Wales with Ann and John Dudley, joined by brother and his


1808              Scandal erupts of illicit affair between Sleath and John Dudley, John and

Ann Dudley separate

1809              The Bristol Heiress: or Errors in Education Minerva Press

1810      The Nocturnal Minstrel Minerva Press

1811              Pyrenean Banditti Minerva Press

John and Ann Dudley legally separated

1813      John Edward Carter death, Eleanor inherits property and cash

mother Elizabeth dies at 83

1815      Glenowen; or The Fairy Palace by Black and Company

1816      Eleanor Sleath purchases a house in Loughborough Dec 19

1823              Ann Dudley death, John Dudley and Eleanor Carter marry in

Loughborough, lives in Sileby

1833-4   High Street Bridge over Sileby Brook dedicated to John and Eleanor


1847              5 May Eleanor Dudley’s death

1856               John Dudley’s death


Aucott, Shirley. Susanna Watts 1768 – 1848. Leicester, 2004. Print.

Calverton, Buckinghamshire. Parish Registers – Marriages 1559 – 1836.   Centre

for Buckinghamshire Studies. p. 22. Print.

Cardale, Joseph Spencer.  “Copies of the Parish Reg[iste]ers Regarding the Carter

Family.” Nd. 3D42/13/49. Record Office for Leicester, Leicestershire and

Rutland. Print.

Carter, John Edward. Will of John Edward carter of Scraptoft, Gentleman. 21 October 1811. Codicil dated 7 June 1804. Proved at London 26 July 1813. PROB 11/1546. National Archives. Print.

Conveyance: John Heathcote of Tiverton to Eleanor Sleath of Loughborough, widow. 19

December 1816. DE 2018/15. Record Office for Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. Print.

Deed of Separation: Ann and John Dudley. 2 October 1821, proved 3 May 1823 PROB 11/1670 National Archives. Print

Dudley, Eleanor. Death Registered 8 May 1847. Quarter 2, Barrow upon Soar

District Vol. 15 p. 24. Print.

Dudley, John. Diary. Misc. 338. Record Office for Leicester,

Leicestershire and Rutland. Print.

—–. The Metamorphosis of Sona. Black, Parry, and Kingsbury. London. 1810.

Record Office for Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. Print.

—–.“To John Frewen.” 20 September 1808. East Sussex Record Office. FRE/1832.


—–.  “To Mary Frewen Friar Lane, Leicester with His Impressions of Bath.” 12

April 1801.  FRE/2786 East Sussex Record Office. Print.

Frewen, John.  “From Hot Well, Bath, To Rev. Thomas Frewen” 21 June 1784.

FRE/1231. East Sussex Record Office. Print.

Frewen, Mary. “To John Frewen.” 1803. FRE 2314. East Sussex Record Office.


Hodson, Major V. C. P. List of Army Officers of the Bengal Army, 1758 – 1834.

London, 1946. Print.

Lease between Edward Hartopp Wigley of Little Dalby, Esq and John Edward Carter of

Scraptoft, Gentleman.  31 May 1801 3D42/13/507. Record office for

Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. Print.

Loughborough All Saints: Marriages 1815 – 1826.  1823.

Sadleir, Michael. The Northanger Novels: A Footnote to Jane Austen. Folcroft,

PA: The Folcroft Press, Inc., 1927. Print.

St.Nicholas. Nuneaton. Parish Register Burials 1577 – 1812. September and October


—–. Churchyard of St. Nicholas, Nuneaton. Monument inscription: Joseph Barnabas


Swords, Barbara.  “Woman’s Place in Jane Austen’s England.” Persuasions 10

(1988): n. pg. Web.

Teasdale, Thomas. 13 November 1794.

Varma, Devendra. “Introduction.” The Nocturnal Minstrel. London: Folio Press,


—–. “Introduction.” The Orphan of the Rhine. London: Folio Press, 1968.

Watts, Susanna. “To Mary Frewen” 8 August 1808. p 3. FRE/2817. East Sussex

Record Office. Print.

Wheeler, Eric C. The Parish Registers of St. Mary Sileby Leicestershire Vol. VI:

Baptisms and Burials 1765 – 1812. Sileby, 2003. P. 83. Print.

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